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From top, left to right : Surabaya Central Park, Graha SA Surabaya Building, Sanggar Agung Temple, Suramadu Bridge at night, Surabaya Carnival Park, Museum 10 November, one of the Hindus temple in Surabaya (Pura Jagatnatha Perak), and UNESA Lake.) (formerly Dutch: Soerabaja/Soerabaia) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.
It is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia.
The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences.
Japan occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of Indonesia, and it was bombed by the Allies in 1944.
The Battle of Surabaya, one of the well-known battles of the Indonesian revolution, started after the Arek-Arek Suroboyo (Teenagers of Surabaya) assassinated the British Brigadier Mallaby on October 30, 1945 near Jembatan Merah (the "Red Bridge"), allegedly with a stray bullet.
The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused.
The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on November 10, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan (Heroes' Day).
The incident of the red-white flag (the Dutch flag at the top of Yamato Hotel's tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag) by Bung Tomo is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.
Surabaya alludes to a prophecy of Jayabaya, a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom, foreseeing a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is sometimes interpreted as foretelling the Mongol invasion of Java, a major conflict between the forces of Kublai Khan, Mongol ruler of China, and those of Raden Wijaya's Majapahit in 1293.Some people consider Jayabaya's prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945.Another story tells of two heroes who fought each other in order to be the king of the city. These folk etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable.The name Janggala was probably originated from the name "Hujung Galuh" (Old Javanese lit: "Cape Diamond" or "Cape Gemstone"), or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source.Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Brantas River and today is the part of modern Surabaya city and Sidoarjo Regency.